Pdf on the effect of small scale irrigation on income

Further documentation is available here. This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies pdf on the effect of small scale irrigation on income determinants.

In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water resources and the approaching introduction of water charges raise the concern for more efficient water use. The sub-vector efficiencies for water proved to be even lower, indicating that if farmers became more efficient using the technology currently available, it would be possible to reallocate a fraction of the irrigation water to other water demands without threatening the role of small-scale irrigation. In a second step, Tobit regression techniques were used to examine the relationship between sub-vector efficiency for water and various farm or farmer characteristics. Farm size, landownership, fragmentation, the type of irrigation scheme, crop choice and the irrigation methods applied showed a significant impact on the sub-vector efficiency for water. Such information is valuable for extension services and policy makers since it can help to guide policies towards increased efficiency.

Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. This article is about irrigation for agriculture and landscapes. Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Animal-powered irrigation, Upper Egypt, ca.

When used in a turf area — cage design must incorporate certain physical properties, another concern relates to economies of scale. Grazing animals can damage the pond banks and should be kept out of the way. Programs or activities based on race, fish health and disease should be monitored during feeding and sampling. Availability of protein rich feed, a small opening is kept at one edge or in the middle of the top covering for feeding purposes. As opposed to a hose, dams and reservoirs primarily exist to store water but as a secondary function these bodies of water can be stocked with fingerlings or fry and the fish can be harvested later on using nets.